Persian Garden Explored
Architecture and design are the interface for transferring meaning and identity to the nation and future generations. In this sense, Culture and identity in a society can be represented in the architecture and the meanings intertwined with it.
Persian Gardens have been indeed a masterpiece of human creative genius; evolved through the history of the Persian Empire in regards, to the culture and beliefs of the society.
Patterns of design and architecture in Persian gardens and the meanings intertwined with their patterns and significant elements such as water and trees. Persian gardens are not only about geometries and shapes; but also manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol and its significance among the society. alongside various design qualities such as hierarchy, symmetry, centrality, rhythm and harmony.
The design of the Persian Garden, based on the right angle and geometrical proportions, is often divided into four sections known as Chahar Bagh (Four Gardens). The creation of the Persian Garden was made possible due to intelligent and innovative engineering solutions and a sophisticated water-management system, as well as the appropriate choice of flora and its location in the garden layout. Indeed, the Persian Garden has been associated with the idea of earthly Paradise, forming a stark contrast to its desert setting.
It is the geometry and symmetry of the architecture, together with the complex water management system, that seem to have influenced design in all these gardens. Exhibiting an important interchange of human values, having been the principal reference for the development of garden design in Western Asia, Arab countries, and even Europe. The word Paradise entered European languages from the Persian root word "Pardis", which was the name of a beautiful garden enclosed behind walls. Bearing exceptional, and even unique, testimony to the cultural traditions that have evolved in Iran and the Middle East over some two and a half millennia.
Throughout its evolution, the Persian Garden has had a role in various cultural and social aspects of society, becoming a central feature in private residences, palaces and public buildings, as well as in ensembles associated with benevolent or religious institutions, such as tombs, park layouts, palace gardens, Medians, etc.
Indeed, the Persian Garden has become a prototype for the geometrically-designed garden layout, diffused across the world. The Persian Garden is an outstanding example of a type of garden design achieved by utilizing natural and human elements and integrating significant achievements of Persian culture into a physical and symbolic-artistic expression in harmony with nature.
Considering the discussions above, Iranian garden construction features can be classified as follows:
Upon entering these heavenly gardens, along the space parallel to the main axis landscapes of Joupar altitudes are seen. This long landscape is hidden by the huge size of the main structure and is reinforced by the trees at both sides having different colors at different seasons.
The water’s overall stream along the garden’s main axis and the waterfalls and their sounds, have contributed to a high quality for this axis. Tree reflections, the façade structure and the gazebo have contributed to a relaxing feel about the garden, one of peace and solitude. Light and shade play a significant role in this landscaping.
1. Garden is a depiction of Paradise (Considering Iranians’ view to Paradise and its role in emergence of the Iranian garden)
2. Role of land and bed is important so far as topography, fertility, and position in function and type of the garden is regarded.
3. Flowing water is the main element in Iranian Garden Construction. It is important from three aspects: Water supplies, how to irrigate the garden, and how to use water as an ornamentation (aesthetically).
4. Construction of a greenbelt and its desirable effects against Iran’s dry and desert climate have doubled the importance of garden construction.
5. Focus on the main axis, geometry and application of square and rectangle shapes in designing gardens presents a specific platform.
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